Pinyin - Hanyu Pinyin

Initials
                 Finals
MPS Pinyin
b

p

m
f
d
t
n
l
g
k
h
j
q
x
zh(i)
ch(i)
sh(i)
r(i)
z(i)
c(i)
s(i)
MPS Pinyin
yi,-i
wu,-u

yu,-u/

a
o
e
ie ()
ai
ei
ao
ou
an
en
ang
eng
er
 
MPS
Pinyin
ya,-ia
io (yo)
ie (ye)
(iai) yai / yie
-iao (yao)
(you) iu
yan (ian)
yin,-in
yang,-iang
ying,-ing
wa,-ua
wo,-uo
wai,-uai
wei,-ui
wan,-uan
wen,-un
wang,-uang
weng,-ong
yue,-e
yuan,-an
yun,- n
yong,-iong

Phonemes (units of pronounciation) with an "h" as the second letter are pronounced with the tip of tongue on the upper ridge (in middle of mouth, called the alvelor ridge). The same pinyin characters withOUT the "h" letter are pronounced with the tongue at the front, touching behind the teeth (called dental area). Try the "sh" sound at each of these places.

The "r" sound is actually a combination of an English "Y" with an "R". The tongue is curled on the sides, or wavy, line a "w". In an English "r", the tongue is flat. Just think of a "Y" before the "R".

To teach children, the Taiwanese (and other Chinese speaking countries) use a system of 37 pseudo-characters (similar to an alphabet) which contain all the basic sounds associated with Mandarin Chinese and it is officially called 'MPS', or the 'Mandarin Phonetic System' and in Chinese, 'Zhuyin fuhao' (also known colloquially as "Bo Po Mo Fo" based on the sounds of the first 4 'characters.)

Pinyin - Hanyu Pinyin

Chinese can be written using the Roman alphabet with added tone marks, (which not readily available on most computers, but which can be downloaded from sites in our ‘Chinese language study links’ section). There are three systems used for Romanisation (transliteration to a Roman alphabet), but the most popular is the Pinyin system and there are important differences in the way Chinese consonants are represented. Mainland China has instituted the most widely accepted system over the last 15 years called simply, Pinyin or Hanyu Pinyin. Previously, the Yale system was the most accepted and was created by Yale University in the US. Because of the polical differences between the PRC (People's Republic of China) and Taiwan (ROC), Taiwan has decided not to embrace the Pinyin system, and instead chose the Wade-Giles system as their official system.

Pinyin Pronounciation:

   
NOTE:

The letter 'v' is  not used in Chinese.

Most difficult sounds (in Pinyin) are c,q and x.

Consonants other than n, ng, and r can never appear at the end of a syllable

*The letter 'i' is pronounced as 'oo' only when it occurs after c, ch, r, s, sh, z or zh.

Most letters are pronounced as in

English, except for the following: 

Vowels

Pronounciation   Consonants Pronounciation

a

ai

ao

e

ei

i

ian

ie

o

ou

u

ui

uo
yu

like 'father'

like 'eye'

like 'ow' in 'cow'

like 'her'

like 'weigh'

like 'ee' in 'meet' or *'oo' in 'book'

like 'yen'

like 'yeah'

like 'or'

like 'oa' in 'boat'

like 'flute'

like 'way'

like 'w' followed by the 'o' in 'or'

like German '' - round your lips and try to say 'ee'

same as German ''

c

ch
h
q

r
sh

x
z

zh

like 'ts' in 'bits'

like 'church' with tongue curled back

guttural, like 'ch' in Scottish 'loch'

like 'ch' in cheese

like 's' in 'pleasure'

like 'she' with tongue curled back

like 'sh' in 'ship'

like 'ds' in 'suds'

like 'j' in 'judge' with tongue curled back

Chart is from from site http://www.eslisland.com/life/languagestudy.html , follow link "Transliteration/Romanization"